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The Appalachian Usage & Style Manual

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Editors and writers will be able to use this manual to produce a high-quality publication on a consistent basis. The editor-in-chief reserves the authority to answer questions not addressed within the pages of this text.

The primary research for this manual came from the following sources: Modern Newspaper Editing by Gene Gilmore and Robert Root (The Glendessary Press, Inc., Berkeley, California, 1971), The Associated Press Stylebook, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Journalism Stylebook and The Appalachian Newspaper Manual.

This section attempts to provide an index of commonly used words in a stylebook format. All copy printed in The Appalachian should be edited to follow this style. Staff members should consult The Associated Press Stylebook as well as official university publications (when applicable) to solve any style question not addressed in this manual.

Numbers [top]

9-11 Acceptable reference for Sept. 11, 2001

A [top]

abbreviations and acronyms see AP Stylebook for correct usage. Do not create a clumsy acronym simply to save space if it will be confusing or needs to be explained.

ACT Appalachian & the Community Together on first reference. Sponsored by Student Programs. ACT may be used on second reference and in headlines. [Web site]

ACLU American Civil Liberties Union.

APPS The Appalachian Popular Programming Society, sponsored by Student Programs. APPS may be used on second reference and in headlines. [Web site]

academic and administrative titles Faculty members should be identified by their correct academic rankings. ASU ranks include instructor, assistant professor, associate professor and professor. Ranks may be confirmed with the department or in the most recent Telephone Directory.
When referring to an administrator or faculty member, use full name and title on first reference. On second reference use last name only.

Capitalize titles preceding a name (never use multiple titles before a name) and lower case them when following a name. A college head is a dean while a department head is a chairperson or chair on second reference. Do not interchange director, coordinator and supervisor. Find the correct title. Vice chancellors are “vice chancellor FOR...” not “of...” See doctor.

academic buildings When referring to buildings, use the identification used in the Telephone Directory’s campus map on first reference (given below). Common names are acceptable on second reference.

Broyhill Music Center (music)
CAP Building (acceptable on all references)
Chapell Wilson Hall (theater)
Edwin Duncan Hall (education)
Holmes Convocation Center (exercise science)
I.G. Greer Hall (religion, theater, international studies)
Kerr Scott Hall (technology)
L.S. Dougherty Hall (family and consumer sciences)
Raley Hall (business, information systems)
Rankin Hall (science)
Sanford Hall (English, foreign languages)
Smith-Wright Hall (psychology)
Walker Hall (communication and math)
Wey Hall (art)
Whitener Hall (political science, history)

academic courses Use official name of college as listed in the latest ASU telephone directory. Courses of study are referred to in lower case, such as biology, sociology and elementary education. Exceptions are English and foreign languages. Specific course titles are capitalized and placed in quotation marks: “New Viewpoints in American History.” Courses listed by numbers are also capitalized: Introduction to Business 1050.

academic units Capitalize official names of university colleges, divisions, departments and offices. ASU has five colleges:

College of Arts and Sciences [Web site]
Walker College of Business [Web site]
Reich College of Education [Web site]
College of Fine and Applied [Web site]
Hayes School of Music [Web site]

Examples of other names are: Division of Continuing Education, department of English, Office of Career Planning and Placement. Division, department and office may be used alone in lower case on second reference. See departments for more.

Appalachian State University Spell out on first reference; thereafter use, Appalachian, Appalachian State and the university are acceptable (do not capitalize university when used alone). Only use ASU in headlines, sports, and feature stories, graphs and captions. [Web site]

AppCard, AppExpress

AppalCART The countywide transit system. [Web site]

Appalachian Consortium A non-profit organization located at Appalachian’s University Hall.

AppolCorps Appalachian Orientation Leaders. AppolCorps is acceptable on all references.

AppalNET The university’s Campus Pipeline system [Web site]

Appalnet The university-operated cable television system.

Appalachian House Washington, D.C. AppHouse is acceptable on second reference. [Web site]

Appalachian Student Ambassadors Appalachian Student Ambassadors on first reference. Ambassadors for subsequent references. [Web site]

Appalachian State University Foundation A fundraising corporation that is a separate unit of the university. It does not answer to the Board of Trustees.

ASU see Appalachian State University

attribution Always use “said” for people and “according to” for documents or Web sites. Proper attribution:

“According to the 2000 census...”
“...Director of Athletics Roachel J. Laney said Tuesday.”
OR “...said Roachel J. Laney, director of Athletics, Tuesday.”
Second reference: “Laney said,” not “said Laney.”

An easy way to remember where to put “said”: It always goes opposite of long titles. If the long title is before the name, put “said” after the name, and vice versa.

B [top]

B-GLAAD Bisexuals, Gays, Lesbians and Allies Associated for Diversity. B-GLAAD may be used on all references. [Web site]

Baptist Student Union BSU on second reference.

Black Student Association BSA may be used on second reference and in headlines.

Board of Governors The governing body of the 16-member University of North Carolina system. Spell out on first reference; thereafter BOG, the board are acceptable uses. [Web site]

Board of Trustees Spell out on first reference. BOT, the board and the trustees acceptable thereafter. The 13-member governing body of ASU. It meets quarterly in the administration building. The SGA president and Faculty Senate chair serve as ex-officio (non-voting) members. [Web site]

Boone Use Town of Boone on first reference. Boone is a town, not a city. It is governed by a five-member Town Council and has an elected mayor and an appointed town manager. The council is made up of council members. The town administers the City Office, Fire Department, Planning and Inspection Department and Police Department. Most offices are housed in the town hall. [Web site]

Before, not prior to

Broyhill Inn & Conference Center [Web site]

buildings and places Official names on first reference. Common names for second reference. Refer to the map in the Telephone Directory for official identification, or see below:

B.B. Dougherty Administration Building
Belk Library [Web site]
Broome-Kirk Health and Physical Education Building [Web site]
Broyhill Music Center [Web site]
Broyhill Inn & Conference Center [Web site]
Catherine J. Smith Gallery [Web site]
Chancellor’s House (across from AppHeights) [Web site]
Chiller Plant
Communication Disorders Clinic
Holmes Convocation Center (Seby Jones Arena is inside) [Web site]
Counseling and Psychological Services Center [Web site]
D.D. Dougherty Hall
Duck Pond Field (Tomlinson Park) [Web site]
Farthing Auditorium [Web site]
Founders Hall [Web site]
Gilley Recording Studio [Web site]
Home Management House
I.G. Greer Arena Theatre (performances) [Web site]
I.G. Greer Auditorium (films) [Web site]
John E. Thomas Hall (JET Building acceptable for second reference) [Web site]
Kidd Brewer Stadium (football, soccer, etc.) [Web site]
Legends [Web site]
Library & Information Commons [Web site]
Lucy Brock Nursery School
McAlister’s Deli [Web site]
McKinney Alumni Center [Web site]
Annas Student Support Building [Web site]
Old Library
Owens Field House [Web site]
Plemmons Student Union (no “the” in front) [Web site]
Quinn Recreation Center [Web site]
Red Lackey Field [Web site]
Rosen Concert Hall [Web site]
Sanford Mall [Web site]
Steam Plant
Student Health Services [Web site]
Trivette Dining Hall [Web site]
Turchin Center for Visual Arts (Turchin Center on 2nd ref.) [Web site]
University Bookstore [Web site]
University Hall (on Hwy 321 behind Staples)
Valborg Theatre [Web site]
Varsity Gymnasium [Web site]
Welborn Dining Hall [Web site]

C [top]

CRSA Campus Resident Student Association - governing body oversees RSAs in each residence hall. CRSA can be used on second reference. [Web site]

classes Freshman, sophomore, junior, senior, graduate student and special student are lower case.

colleges see academic units

contractions Avoid using except in direct quotes, commentaries and features.

counseling center The unofficial name of Counseling and Psychological Services Center. May be used on a first reference. [Web site]

coaches see current sports guide or Web site. head coach is never capitalized.

CSIL Center for Student Involvement and Leadership. CSIL for second reference. (NO “the” in front of). This department no longer exists. See The Office of Community-Engaged Leadership [Web site]

D [top]

date, time and place When a sentence contains each of these elements, place them in the above order: The Board of Trustees will meet Friday at 10 a.m. in the Administration Building. Never begin sentence with time.

deans see academic units for proper names of schools and Web sites.

Dr. Linda Bennett - Arts and Sciences
Dr. Kenneth E. Peacock - Business
Dr. Charles R. Duke - Education
Dr. Mark Estepp - Fine and Applied Arts
Dr. Judith E. Domer - Graduate School
Dr. William G. Harbinson - School of Music

departments and chairs visit [Web site] for updated department information. Academic departments are lowercase, and are referred to as the department of ______. Administrative departments are capitalized like governmental departments, even when used with attribution of title after the name (see attribution).

department of curriculum and instruction

dialect Beware of quoting in dialect; such quotes can be condescending and unclear.


fairness Get both sides of the story. If you include a Republican candidate, include the Democratic hopeful. If you interview a person who is charging another with a wrongdoing, interview the accused. If you interview a company executive about changes in a plant, get the workers’ side too.

fewer and less than Generally, “fewer” is for individual items, “less than” for bulk or quantity. “Fewer than 10 people entered.” “I had less than 40 bushels of apples.”


Freshman Seminar


Greek life

H [top]


Homecoming [Web site]

I [top]

identification When you quote someone, make sure you tell what that person’s title is, what group he is with, and how he is linked with the story to indicate why he is qualified to be quoted. Also, check the spellings of names and use a middle initial if possible. Alexander Pope might be an unusual name, but not for the 12 guys out there with that moniker.

IFC Interfraternity Council - IFC may be used on second reference.

I.G. Greer Arena Theatre and Auditorium The arena theatre is a small area for performances in the lower level of the building. The auditorium is where films are shown.

M [top]

majors Always lowercase unless formal (such as English and foreign languages).

months see AP stylebook for abbreviations. Always abbreviate with dates (exceptions: March, April, May, June and July).

N [top]

NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. NAACP is acceptable on all references.

New York Loft New York City campus. NY Loft is acceptable on second reference. [Web site]

North Carolina North Carolina is spelled out when used as a noun. Abbreviate it to N.C. when used as an adjective. However, it is spelled out when part of a proper noun, as in North Carolina State University, but not before the name of a state agency, as in NC Department of Transportation. When used with a state department, do not include periods.

NOW National Organization for Women. NOW is acceptable on second reference.

O [top]

on-campus, off-campus The hyphens are used when the words are adjectives. He lives off campus. She is an off-campus student.

P [top]

parking The following are university-owned parking areas. [Web site]

Raley Lot
Legends Lot
Doughton Lot
Rivers Street Parking Deck
Greenwood Lot
Hill Street Lot
Cone Lot
State Farm Lot
South Lot
Whitener Lot (no longer exists)

Phase 1 and 2 Orientation Use Arabic numerals, not Roman.

PHC Panhellenic Council - PHC may be used on second reference.

Plemmons Student Union Spell out on first reference. It may also be referred to as the student union on all following references. There is no "the" in front. [Web site]

The following are located inside the student union:
1st floor:
Yadkin River Room
Cascades Atrium
Catawba River Room
Looking Glass Gallery
Watauga River Room
Crossroads Coffeehouse
New River Room
Hawksbill Gameroom
Cascades Cafe
Roan Mountain Room
Grandfather Ballroom (Calloway Peak, MacCrae Peak and Attic Window Peak)
2nd floor:
Whitewater Mountain Laurel Room
Rhododendron Room Linville Falls Room
Blue Ridge Ballroom (Price Lake Room and Table Rock Room)
Appalachian Trail Computer Room
McAlister’s Deli
Summit Trail Solarium

police department and sheriff’s department The Town of Boone employs police officers within its police department. Watauga County deputies work in the sheriff’s department. Prisoners are held in the Watauga County Jail (not prison).

professor is a job description, not a title. It should never be capitalized. This also applies to associate professor, lecturer, adjunct instructor and associate professor.

punctuation and periods Do not include periods in acronyms. The only exception is a national organization that includes periods (i.e. S.A.V.E.)


R [top]

Recruitment Always capitalized when referring to Greek event. The actual act itself is not capitalize.

resident assistant RA may be used on first reference.

residence halls All ASU Residence Life facilities are residence halls. ASU does not have dorms. Use _____ Residence Hall on first reference and ____ Hall thereafter. When referring to multiple halls, "residence halls" is lower case: "Bowie and Frank residence halls." [Web site]

Living-Learning Center
Mountaineer Apartments
Appalachian Heights Apartments

Resident Student Association RSA may be used on second reference. [Web site]

restaurants Below are the official names for frequently used restaurants:

Murphy’s Restaurant & Pub (Murphy’s)
Geno’s Sports Restaurant (Geno’s)
Black Cat Burrito
Klondike Cafe

Rivers Street Not "River Street"

ROTC Reserve Officer Training Corps - ROTC is acceptable on first reference. Each school has a different branch of the ROTC, Appalachian hasArmy ROTC [Web site]

Rush No longer the official name. Use Recruitment.

S [top]

said (see attribution) Always use "said" in news stories, not "explained" or "believed." When using "believe," put "said he/she" in front. On first reference, or with titles, said remains closest to the name. If the title comes before the name, "said" comes after. If the title comes after, "said" goes before. On second reference, "said" always comes after the name.

For example:

"...Director of Athletics Charlie Cobb said." OR
"... said Charlie Cobb, director of Athletics."
"... Cobb said." NOT "... said Cobb."

S.A.V.E. Students Actively Volunteering for the Environment. S.A.V.E. on second reference. The periods must be included.

Sanford Mall The mall only on second reference.

Southern Conference See sports guide. [Web site]

sport scores Always use numbers: 1-9, 10-8

semesters Lower case the names of semesters: fall semester 1986, spring semester.


Spring Break

Student Development Refers to full-time administrative offices housed in B.B. Doughtery Administration Building. [Web site]

Student Government Association SGA may be used on second reference and in headlines. Second reference may also be student government. The student government has two branches: executive and legislative. The legislative branch is the SGA Senate on first reference and Senate thereafter. All Senate committee names are capitalized. Titles should follow names, in lower case, or when preceding the name must include SGA, as in SGA President Jane Smith. Sen. should not be used. [Web site]

Student Health Services Spell out on first reference. Health Services thereafter. [Web site]

Student Programs Refers to full-time administrative offices housed in Plemmons Student Union. [Web site]

Summit Trail Solarium Use Solarium on second reference

T [top]

The Appalachian remains The Appalachian on second reference. ‘The’ is part of its official name. Always italicized, except in photo credits. [Web site]

The Appalachian Online official name of our Web site. [Web site]

The Rhododendron remains The Rhododendron on second reference. ‘The’ is part of its official name. [Web site]

The Wired Scholar The 24-hour cyber cafe in Belk Library & Information Commons. "The" is part of the name, and must be included on all references.

U [top]

university Do not capitalize the word university in reference to ASU. It is only capitalized when part of a specific name: Duke University.

university activities Capitalize all formal university activities and breaks: Homecoming, Family Day, Commencement. Fall Break, Winter Break, Phase 2 Orientation.

university officials Check most recent ASU telephone directory for official titles.

University Police This is the official name for the University Police. Police may be used on second reference. Do not use “Campus Police.” [Web site]

UNC system Use University of North Carolina system on first reference; UNC system on following references. The UNC system has the following 16 member institutions, with acceptable second-reference abbreviations: [Web site]

Appalachian State University: Appalachian, Appalachian State, or ASU [Web site]
East Carolina University: ECU or East Carolina [Web site]
Elizabeth City State University: ECSU or Elizabeth City State [Web site]
Fayetteville State University: FSU or Fayetteville State [Web site]
North Carolina Agriculture and Technical State University: NC A&T [Web site]
North Carolina Central University: NCCU or NC Central [Web site]
North Carolina School of the Arts: NCSA or School of the Arts [Web site]
North Carolina State University: NCSU or NC State [Web site]
University of North Carolina at Pembroke: UNCP [Web site]
University of North Carolina at Asheville: UNCA [Web site]
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: UNCCH or Carolina [Web site]
University of North Carolina at Charlotte: UNCC [Web site]
University of North Carolina at Greensboro: UNCG [Web site]
University of North Carolina at Wilmington: UNCW [Web site]
Western Carolina University: WCU or Western Carolina [Web site]
Winston-Salem State University: WSSU or Winston-Salem State [Web site]

The UNC system is headed by a president; each institution has a chancellor.

W [top]

Watauga County Boone is in Watauga County and is the county seat. The county has a Board of Commissioners, which employs a county manager. County agencies include the Board of Elections, the Clerk of Court, the District Attorney, the Fire Marshall, the Health Department, the Register of Deeds and the Board of Education. The county maintains the Courthouse and the Law Enforcement Center. [Web site]

Watauga Democrat The Democrat may be used on second reference. Must be italicized. [Web site]

Web site two words, Web capitalized similar to Internet.